Nunes, N., Rosa, G.P., Ferraz, S., Barreto, M.C., Pinheiro de Carvalho, M.A.A. (2020) Fatty acid composition, TLC screening, ATR-FTIR analysis, anti-cholinesterase activity and in vitro cytotoxicity to A549 tumor cell line of extracts of 3 macroalgae collected in Madeira.Journal of Applied Phycology, 32, 759-771. DOI:10.1007/s10811-019-01884-9 (IF2019 3,016; Q1 Marine & Freshwater Biology)
Three macroalgae collected at Madeira Island were included in this study to determine their potential for drug, nutraceutical, food, or supplement application. Fatty acid content was higher in Zonaria tournefortii (12.32 mg g−1 dw) with 16.58% of PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5ω3), and arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) having concentrations of 2.59 and 1.17%, respectively. The anti-thrombogenic and anti-atherogenicity potential was higher for Z. tournefortii due to relevant fatty acids in the biochemical composition this macroalgae. Lipid classes were assessed in the lipid extract and neutral lipids (NL) were in higher yield in Asparagopsis taxiformis (51.16%) and lower in Z. tournefortii (26.96%). The glycolipids (GL) were between 36.03 and 16.11% in Z. tournefortii and Ulva lactuca. Phospholipids (PL) fraction varied from 35.91 and 31.60% in A. taxiformis and Z. tournefortii. TLC screening identified that U. lactuca contains phytol and cholesterol in its NL, digalactosyldiacylglycerol in its GL, and cardiolipin and L-α-phosphatidylcholine in its PL. Zonaria tournefortii contains phytol and cholesterol in its NL classes, and the PL classes contain L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine and 1-(3-sn-phosphatidyl)-rac-glycerol. The macroalgae A. taxiformis revealed cholesterol in its NL fraction and the same phospholipids as Z. tournefortii in its PL fraction. ATR-FTIR analysis enabled a “fingerprint” spectra and important sulfation absorption bands were identified, revealing the functional polysaccharides within these macroalgae. Anti-cholinesterasic activity was assessed in A. taxiformis, with a low IC50 for AChE (8.92 ± 0.43 μg mL−1) and BuChE (13.96 ± 0.32 μg mL−1), demonstrating dual inhibitory activity, justifying the interest to identify the active principle which may be the scaffold of a novel drug.